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        首页 > 高考总复习 > 高考知识点 > 英语高频考点 > 英语高频考点:语形容词与副词考点
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        英语高频考点:语形容词与副词考点

        2019-05-23 16:39:13网络资源

          一、形容词和副词的基本用法A.形容词:就是用来修饰名词或不定代词,表示人或事物的性质、状态和特征的词。形容词主要作定语、表语、补语。如:1. This is a new pen. 这是支新钢笔。(形容词new作名词pen定语)

          2. These oranges taste ________. (全国卷)

          A. good

          B. well

          C. to be good

          D. to be well

          【分析】答案选A。系动词taste(尝起来)后要接形容词作表语。

          3. John was so sleepy that he could hardly keep his eyes ________. (全国卷)

          A. open

          B. to be opened

          C. to open

          D. opening

          【分析】答案选A。形容词open(开着的)作宾补,表示状态。注意:不要选答案D,因为open是短暂性动词,不能表状态。B.副词:就是修饰动词、形容词、其它副词或全句,说明时间、地点、程度、方式等概念的词。副词在句中主要作状语。如:It’s raining heavily. 雨下得很大。(副词heavily修饰谓语动词heavily)It’s a rather interesting job. 这是一份相当有趣的工作。(副词rather修饰形容词interesting)She speaks English very well. 她的英语说得很好。(副词very修饰副词wel'Times New Roman'">veryThis is just what he said. 这正是他所说的。(副词just修饰what he said)注:here, there, in, out, away, abroad等少数副词也可以作表语;here, there, home, abroad, below等表示地点或方位的词及today, tomorrow, yesterday, back, out等表示时间或动词方向词还可以作定语。如:Tom isn’t here. 汤姆不在这里。(here作表语) The people there were very kind to us. 那里的人对我们很友好。(副词there作定语,修饰people)

          二、定语形容词与表语形容词A.表语形容词:有的形容词一般只作表语,如表示健康状况的well, unwell, ill, faint,表示情感反应的glad, sorry, fond, worth, able,以a开头的afraid, alone, asleep, alive, awake, alike, ashamed等。但有的可作后置定语或补语。B.定语形容词:通常只作定语的形容词,如起强调作用的only(唯一的), single(唯一的), certain(某一), certain(真正的), true(真正的), very(正是), live(活的), exact(准确的), present(在场的),由名词等转化而来的wooden(木制的), woolen(羊毛制的), drunken(醉的), medical, daily, weekly, electric, former(前任的), some, any, little, many, 及one-eyed之类的复合形容词等。如:This is a medical school. (不说三、形容词作定语的后置规律形容词作定语一般位于所修饰的名词前,但是在下列情况下作定语的形容词却要位于所修饰的名词之后:形容词作定语一般位于所修饰的名词前,但是在下列情况下作定语 A.形容词短语作定语时要后置。

          如:________ to take this adventure course will certainly learn a lot of useful skills. (全国卷)

          A. Brave enough students

          B. Enough brave students

          C. Students brave enough

          D. Students enough brave

          【分析】答案选C。enough修饰形容词时要位于形容词之后,排除B和修饰形容词时要位于形容词之后,排除D。brave enough to…是形容词短语作定语,修饰students,要置于名词students之后。B.表语形容词作定语要后置。如:All the people________ at the party were his supporters. (北京卷)

          A. present

          B. thankful

          C. interested

          D. important

          【分析】答案选A。表语形容词present(出席的、在场的)作定语,要放在所修饰的名词后。C.形容词修饰不定代词something, anything, nothing等时,要位于后面。如:Is there anything important in the paper? 报纸上有什么重要新闻吗

          四、多个形容词作定语的排序多个形容词修饰名词时,其排序规律是:ab-stops: 199.5pt">限定词+程度副词+) 描绘性形容词+表示大小(长短、高低)、形状、年龄(新旧)的形容词+表颜色Roman'">的形容词+表国籍或产地的形容词+表物质材料的形容词+表类别或用途的形容词+名词。

          如:1. John Smith, a successful businessman, has a ________ car. (辽宁卷)

          A. large German white

          B. large white German

          C. white large German

          D. German large white

          【分析】答案选B。按“大小+颜色+产地”的顺序排列。

          2. ________ students are required to take part in the boat race.ont-weight: normal">浙江卷)

          A. Ten strong young Chinese

          B. Ten Chinese strong young

          C. Chinese ten young strong

          D. Young strong ten Chinese

          【分析】答案选A。数词是限定词,应排在形容词前,排除C和D;又strong是描绘,young是年龄,Chinese是国籍,其先后应为“描绘+年龄+国籍”。

          3. The ________ house smells as if it hasn’t been lived in for years. (江苏卷)

          A. little white wooden

          B. little wooden white

          C. white wooden little

          【分析】答案选A。little是限定词,应放在形容词前面,排除C和D;表示颜色的应放在表示物质材料的形容词的前面,排除B。

          注:限定词的排序:前位限定词 (指量限定词all, both, half等;倍数词double, twice等;分数词one-third, two-fifths等) +中位限定词 (冠词;指示代词;形容词性物主代词;名词所有格)+后位限定词 (序数词及last, next等;基数词及few, several等)等。

          如:1. The husband gave his wife ________ every month in order to please her. (重庆卷)

          A. all half his income

          B. his half all income

          C. half his all income

          D. all his half income

          【分析】答案选A。all和half都是前位限定词,his是中位限定词,所以his要位于all和half之后,只有A正确。

          2. —How was your recent visit to Qingdao?—It was great. We visited some friends, and spent the ________ days at the seaside. (全国卷)

          A. few last sunny

          B. last few sunny

          C. last sunny few

          D. few sunny last

          【分析】答案选B。last, few是限定词,sunny是描绘性形容词,根据“限定词+形容词”的原则,排除C的原则,排除和D。又根据“序数词(包括last, past, next, another等)+基数词(包括few, several等)”的原则,排除A。 五、副词在句中的位置规律1) 副词修饰形容词或其它副词时,一般位于被修饰词的前面,但enough却要放在被修饰的形容词或副词的后面。

          如:1. —Mum, I think I’m ________ to get back to school. —Not really, my dear. You’d better stay at home for another day or two. (全国卷)

          A. so well

          B. so good

          C. well enough

          D. good enough

          【分析】答案选C。指“身体好”用形容词well (=healthy)而不用good;副词enough修饰形容词时,要位于形容词之后。

          2. If I had ________, I’d visit Europe, stopping at the small interesting places. (全国卷)

          A. a long enough holiday

          B. an enough long holiday

          C. a holiday enough long

          D. a long holiday enough

          【分析】答案选A。enough要放在形容词long之后。

          3. ________, some famous scientists have the qualities of being both careful and careless. (上海卷)A. Strangely enough

          B. Enough strangely

          C. Strange enough

          D. Enough strange

          【分析】答案选A。修饰整个句子,要用副词,排除C和。修饰整个句子,要用副词,排除D;副词enough应放在它所修饰的副词strangely的后面,所以选A。2) 频度副词always, usually, often, never等一般放ONT>be动词之后。如:She always gets up early. 她总是起得早。(副词always放在行为动词gets之前)She is seldom late for school. 他很少上学迟到。(副词seldom放在be动词之后)3) 词表示地点的副词常放在句末;表示确定时间的副词放在句首或句末;表示方式的副词词通常放在“动词(+宾语)”之后,也可放在其它位置;同时有表示时间、地点和方式的副词时,其顺序一般为:方式+地点+时间。

          如:________ I went to the railway station to see my friend off. (全国卷)

          A. After eating quickly my dinner

          B. After my quickly eating dinner

          C. After eating my dinner quickly

          D. After eating my quickly dinner

          【分析】答案选C。方式副词一般位于“动词(+宾语)”之后。

          六、–ed形容词和-ing形容词的区别-ed形容词,通常说明人,意为“(某人)感到…”;-ing形容词通常说明事物,意为“(某事物)令人…”或“令人…的(事物)”。这样成对的形容词有:interested / interesting; excited / exciting; frightened / frightening; surprised / surprising; pleased / pleasing; moved / moving; disappointed / disappointing等。

          1. Laws that punish parents for their little children’s actions against the laws get parents ________. (重庆卷)

          A. worried

          B. to worried

          C. worrying   &333300nbsp;

          D. worry

          【分析】答案选A。表示人“感到忧虑的”用-ed形容词。句意是:…法律使得做父母的感到忧虑。

          2. It is believed that if a book is ________, it will surely ________ the reader.

          A. interested; interest

          B. interesting; be interested

          C. interested; be tab-stops: 199.5pt">

          D. interesting; interest

          【分析】答案选D。指书令人有趣用interesting而不interested,排除A和C。interest是动词,“使…有趣”。注:即使-ed形容词用以说明事物,那也是指与该事物相关的人;即使-ing形容词用以说明人,也是指此人具有该性质或特征。如:-ingHe told me the news in an excited voice. 他告诉了那个消息,声音很激动。这个有很有趣。

          另外,glad, happy, sorry, angry, thankful, proud等的主语也只能是人;而pleasant, easy, difficult, important 等则通常以事物或it作主语,因为它们是说明事物的。

          如:—I’m very ________ with my own cooking. It looks nice and smells delicious. —Mn, it does have a ________ smell. (北京卷)

          A. pleasant; pleased

          B. pleased; pleased

          C. pleasant; pleasant

          D. pleased; pleasant

          【分析】答案选D。pleased指“(人)感到高兴”,pleasant指“令人愉快的(事物)”。

         

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